When personal computers first came into being, manufacturers were looking for all sorts of uses so they could pitch to consumers why they might want to plunk down a serious amount of cash for one of these boxes. While technology enthusiasts and video game fans might have immediately seen a use, strange as it sounds it wasn't always clear to the layman what exactly they would do with their new, expensive gadget. It didn't take long for education to be thrown into the mix of what you could use your new fangled computer for with sky-high promises to revolutionize the learning experience! I don't think many (if any) early educational games really lived up to the hype; usually they fell into two categories, fun to play but without much educational value or a decent educational experience but about as fun as your average math exam. Maybe I shouldn't fault the developers too much, the genre concept was new at the time and the delicate balancing act of both educational and fun isn't easy even today (I guess there aren't many ways you can spruce up some topics, such as math). Even still, most early programs are quite poor and really no different than a set of exercises, but on a computer...
Happy Holidays 2022!
The PixelatedArcade 2022 End of Year Roundup
And here we are...the end of 2022! Time flies, and before you know it it's time for the now tradditional end-of-year roundup. It's been a while since I've done any game reviews, so a few really quick ones are below too. I spent a lot of time this year ranting about color, color clashes, and other similar topics. More of that to come in 2023, along with additions to the ever expanding database of screenshots, scans, game information, and so on...
...And We're Back!
Unexpected Outage and Other November Updates
If you tried to visit PixelatedArcade or PixelatedImages over the past day or two, you may have noticed we were down! That outage certainly took longer than expected, but our hosting provider was performing some maintenance to address performance issues. Everything is back now, and hopefully loading much quicker. In the past month another code update was pushed live which also should help improve performance as well as add some new features; most of these resolve some behind the scenes bugs and make administration easier, but there are also some improvements to the mobile experience and some foundations to begin improving how companies vs. their publishing labels are represented. In the meantime, we're rapidly approaching the end of year holiday season making real life extra busy; hope everyone stays safe and enjoy the rest of the year! Also, just for fun, here's a few other things worth checking out...
When Colors Clash
Loading Screens and 8-bit Computer Graphics Limitations
Creating graphics on older computers was quite a challenge, and yet many artists and developers put together some impressive results; so I wanted to take a moment to highlight a few of those challenges and present a few screenshots of their work. As I've alluded to in past articles on CGA graphics, most 8-bit computers had graphical limitations beyond just the screen resolution or how many colors could be displayed at once. The precise reason for these limitations varied depending on the computer and specifics of how it's graphics were implemented, but the various, convoluted designs were usually done for the same reasons: to improve speed and/or conserve RAM. In the 1970's and even most of the 1980's processors were slow and memory was very (very!) expensive; to be competitive price-wise cuts had to be made somehow. Going with a black & white or monochrome only approach wasn't going to cut it anymore; although such displays would remain common for quite a while, a system that didn't at least offer the option of color wouldn't do well in the market. So how do you allow a colorful display while at the same time keep performance reasonable and conserve RAM? Here's a quick look at a few of the solutions that were utilized and the distinctive artwork that resulted from working within those confines...
Area 5150 by CRTC & Hornet
The Big Blue Wrecking Crew is Back!
It doesn't occur terribly often that you hear adjectives such as “impressive” used in conjuction with CGA graphics. But here were are once again! You may recall a while back an amazing demo was released into the world which used CGA's composite graphics to generate 1024 colors on the screen at once, quite a feat for a graphics standard most people associate with being able to display no more than 4 colors. If you haven't already seen this, check out CGA in 1024 Colors - a New Mode: the Illustrated Guide on VileR's blog for more technical info, or simply enjoy the YouTube video 8088 MPH by Hornet + CRTC + DESiRE (final version). And now, the team is back again with another ridiculously impressive demo! The latest effort is viewable on YouTube; check it out captured directly from real hardware in the video Area 5150 by CRTC & Hornet (Party Version) / IBM PC+CGA Demo, Hardware Capture or if you prefer view it as being presented at Evoke 2022 in the Area 5150 Audience Reaction video. This time around no composite video techniques are used, instead every trick in the book is pulled out to show 16 colors graphics with a CGA card and RGB monitor. While the demo scene has more traditionally been associated with the Commodore 64 or Amiga, both machines with specialized hardware for graphics and sound, it's nice to see the humble IBM PC given some attention; this demo is quite the accomplishment, congratulations to everyone involved (and a well deserved first place win)! At the moment only the demo videos are available, a more detailed technical write up should be coming soon and once it's available I'll be sure to post an update with the link. For now, enjoy the videos!
Even More Tales of CGA Colors
An Accurate IBM 5153 Palette and Composite Color Consequences
A lot has been written about CGA graphics over the years; while most people seem to immediately have in mind the default pallete of cyan, magenta, white, and black, the card could do a lot more, especially if you had a composite monitor. I've added several thoughts to the mix over the past few years including my preferences for better color choices that games could have easily made. Now, here's some more on CGA colors! Regardless of whether or not a game used CGA well, what would have been seen back in the day depended on a number of factors including whether or not a true IBM CGA card was used (versus, say, a third party CGA card or a later standard such as EGA or VGA emulating a CGA graphics mode) and the particular model of monitor. Introduced in 1983, the IBM 5153 monitor is one such configuration that would provide a subtle difference compared to what is normally seen today with emulators. VileR of int10h.org has written an excellent analysis of the actual 16 colors an IBM 5153 would display and why; I highly recommend checking out his article The IBM 5153's True CGA Palette and Color Output...
The March Miscellaneous Mischief
Code, Books, and Squirrels
Welcome to March 2022! I don't have a particularly substantial update or review this month, but thought I would point a few things out. First is several PixelatedArcade code updates have been pushed live; some changes you won't notice as it's mostly backend administrative stuff, but I did finally enable sorting on game lists! It's a pretty basic feature and embarrassing it took this long to get in place. I've actually had the code in place for a while but not enabled due to some really poor performance; I finally resolved the performance issues so it's available now...
Do Not Attempt To Adjust The Picture
Actually, DO Adjust It For These Games
Color monitors are ubiquitous now, but that wasn't so in the early days of computing. On early computer systems and game consoles where support for color displays was even an option, color was always achieved with various trade offs (usually as a result of limited amounts of RAM in order to keep prices low). Some computers simply limited the number of colors available at once; the Amstrad CPC and IBM PC with CGA let programmers set any pixel to any color, but no more than four colors at a time could be on screen (without clever programming that is). Many systems, including the popular Commodore 64, allowed more colors on screen at once with the catch that you couldn't just set any pixel to whatever color you wanted willy nilly; the screen was instead broken up into blocks, and within each block there could only be a limited number of colors (typically 2 or 4) depending on the resolution and computer. And finally, among this list of tricks to achieve color are systems that took advantage of artifacting in NTSC composite video. This oddball technique turned a flaw into an advantage to achieve more colors on the screen with the disadvantage being a loss of resolution and clarity...